Von Sandee LaMotte
In Boston labs, old and blind miceYou got your sight back, they developed younger, smarter brains and built healthier muscle and kidney tissue. Young mice, on the other hand, aged prematurely, with devastating consequences for almost every tissue in their bodies.
Experiments show that aging areversible process that "can be pushed back and forth at will," said anti-aging expert David Sinclair, professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School's Blavatnik Institute and co-directorVom Paul F. Glenn Center for the Biology of Aging Research.
Our bodies have a backup copy of our youth that can be activated to regenerate, said Sinclair, lead author of a new paper that showcases work from his lab and international scientists.
The combined experimentsFirst published Thursday in Cell Magazine, challenge the scientific belief that aging is the result of genetic mutations that erode our DNA and create a junkyard of damaged cellular tissue that can lead to deterioration, disease and death.
"It's not junk, it's not damage that ages us," said Sinclair, whodescribed working on Life Its last year,a health and wellness event presented in association with CNN.
“We think it's a loss of information, a loss of the cell's ability to read its original DNA so that it forgets how it works, in the same way an old computer can develop corrupted software. I call this information theory. of aging”.
Jae-Hyun Yang, genetics researcher fromsinclair labwho is a co-author of the paper, said he hoped the findings "change the way we view the aging process and how we approach treating diseases associated with aging."
Epigenetic changes control aging
While DNA can be thought of as the body's hardware, the epigenome is the software. Epigenes are proteins and chemicals that sit like freckles on each gene, waiting to tell the gene "what to do, where to do it, and when to do it."according to the National Human Genome Research Institute.
The epigenome literally turns genes on and off. This process can be triggered by pollution, environmental toxins, and human behaviors such as smoking, an inflammatory diet, or chronic lack of sleep. And just like a computer, the more DNA is broken or damaged, the cellular process becomes corrupted, Sinclair said.
"The cell panics and the proteins that normally control genes are distracted from DNA repair," he explained. "So not everyone finds their way back to where they started, over time it's like a ping-pong game where the balls fall all over the floor."
In other words, parts of the cells lose their way back home, as in a person with Alzheimer's.
"The surprising result is that there is a backup copy of the software in the body that can be restored," said Sinclair. "We show why this software gets corrupted and how we can reset the system by flipping a reset button that restores the cell's ability to read the genome correctly the way it was young."
It doesn't matter if the body is 50 or 75, healthy or sick, Sinclair said. Once this process is triggered, "even if you are already old and have an illness, the body will remember how to regenerate itself and become young again. Well, what that software is, we still don't know. At this point." , all we know is that we can flip the switch."
years of research
The search for the switch began when Sinclair was a graduate student, part of a team at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology that discovered the existence of genes.to control yeast aging. This gene exists in all creatures, so there must be a way to do the same in humans, he said.saying
To test the theory, he began trying to accelerate aging in mice without causing mutations or cancer.
"We started making this mouse when I was 39. I'm 53 now and we've been studying this mouse ever since," he said. "If the information theory of aging were wrong, we would have a dead mouse, a normal mouse, an old mouse or a mouse with cancer. We have aging."
With the help of other scientists, Sinclair and his Harvard team managed to age the brain, eyes, muscles, skin and kidney tissues of mice.
To do this, Sinclair's team developed ICE, short for inducible changes in the epigenome. Rather than altering the coding sections of the mouse's DNA that can trigger mutations, ICE changes the way the DNA folds. ICE's fast-healing temporary incisions mimic the daily damage caused by chemicals, sunlight, and the like that contribute to aging.
The ICE mice looked and acted twice their age at one year old.
be young again
Now it was time to reverse the process. Sinclair Lab geneticist Yuancheng Lu developed a three-in-four blend."Fatores Yamanaka, “cells from adult human skin that have been reprogrammed to behave like embryonic or pluripotent stem cells, capable of transforming into any cell in the body.
The cocktail was injected into damaged retinal ganglion cells in the fundus of blind mice and activated by feeding.antibiotics for mice
“The antibiotic is just a tool. It could actually be any chemical, just a way to make sure all three genes are turned on," Sinclair told CNN. "Usually they only turn on in very young developing embryos and then turn off as we get older."
The mice regained most of their vision.
Next, the team targeted brain, muscle and kidney cells and restored them to much younger levels, according to the study.
"One of our breakthroughs was realizing that, by using this particular set of three pluripotent stem cells, the mice didn't go back to age zero, which could cause cancer or worse," Sinclair said. “Instead, the cells go back to 50 to 75% of their original age and stop and don't get any younger, which is lucky. We still don't understand how the cells know this."
Today, Sinclair's team is trying to find a way to apply the genetic modification to each cell equally, rejuvenating the entire mouse at once.
"Delivery is a technical hurdle, but other groups seem to have done well," Sinclair said, pointing to two unpublished studies that appear to have overcome the problem.
“They use the same system that we developed to treat very old mice, equivalent to an 80-year-old human being. And they even managed to make the mice live longer, which is remarkable. So they beat us to that experiment.", she said.
"But what this tells me is that rejuvenation doesn't just affect a few organs, it can rejuvenate the entire mouse because it lives longer," he added. "The results are a gift and a confirmation of what our article says."
What is the next? Billions of dollars are being invested in anti-aging and funding all sorts of methods to turn back the clock.
In his lab, Sinclair said his team has reset cells in mice multiple times, showing that aging can be reversed more than once, and is currently testing genetic resetting in primates. But it could be decades before any anti-aging clinicHuman trials begin, are tested, and if safe and successful are scaled up to the required mass for federal approval.
But just as damaging factors can alter the epigenome, healthy behavior can repair it, Sinclair said.
"We know this is probably true because people who have healthy lifestyles have younger biological ages than those who don't," he said.
Your top tips? Focus on plants as food, eat less often,Get plenty of sleep, be out of breath for 10 minutes three times a week, exercise to maintain muscle mass, don't worry about trifles, and have a good social group.
"The message is that every day counts," Sinclair said. "How do you live your life, even as a teenager andYour 20s are very important, even decades later, because your clock is ticking every day."
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Can we reverse aging in mice? ›
In molecular biologist David Sinclair's lab at Harvard Medical School, old mice are growing young again. Using proteins that can turn an adult cell into a stem cell, Sinclair and his team have reset aging cells in mice to earlier versions of themselves.How are mice similar to humans? ›
Almost all of the genes in mice share functions with the genes in humans. That means we develop in the same way from egg and sperm, and have the same kinds of organs (heart, brain, lungs, kidneys, etc.) as well as similar circulatory, reproductive, digestive, hormonal and nervous systems.Why is it useful to study aging in mice? ›
Mice are an ideal mammalian model for studying the genetics of aging: considerable resources are available, the generation time is short, and the environment can be easily controlled, an important consideration when performing mapping studies to identify genes that influence lifespan and age-related diseases.Can stem cells reverse aging? ›
Stem cells are a promising potential solution for reversing the visible signs of aging. These special cells have the ability to regenerate damaged tissues and improve overall cellular function, which may lead to a reduction in the appearance of wrinkles and other age-related changes.Can you ever fully get rid of mice? ›
The good news is that with proper pest control and prevention, you can indeed ensure all mice are completely out of your home. If you suspect a mouse infestation or have questions about how you can be sure to completely get rid of mice in your home, seek help from a licensed pest control professional immediately.What foods reverse aging? ›
- Watercress. The health benefits of watercress don't disappoint! ...
- Red bell pepper. Red bell peppers are loaded with antioxidants which reign supreme when it comes to anti-aging. ...
- Papaya. ...
- Blueberries. ...
- Broccoli. ...
- Spinach. ...
- Nuts. ...
Mice and humans share approximately 70 percent of the same protein-coding gene sequences, though these genes constitute just 1.5 percent of their respective genomes.How much DNA do humans share with rats? ›
Our feline friends share 90% of homologous genes with us, with dogs it is 82%, 80% with cows, 69% with rats and 67% with mice . Human and chimpanzee DNA is so similar because the two species are so closely related.Can we slow down aging? ›
Many researchers have tried to find out whether the speed of the biological aging process can be slowed down, according to Loge Nilsen. “Our study shows that we can actually flatten the curve for the speed of aging,” the researcher says.How did scientists make mice more intelligent? ›
This team from Britain and Canada found that mutating a single gene to block the phosphodiesterase-4B (PDE4B) enzyme, which is found in many organs including the brain, made mice cleverer and at the same time less fearful.
How do you slow aging and even reverse it? ›
- The single best thing you can do for your health and longevity is quit smoking. ...
- Drink only in moderation. ...
- Get your Zzzz's. ...
- Find a doctor who specializes in geriatrics or anti-aging. ...
- Cut saturated fat, up omega-3 fats. ...
- Consider moderating your total food intake.
In their study published in Molecular Cell, the researchers show that an enzyme complex named HTC (hydride transfer complex) can inhibit cells from aging.Can humans regenerate stem cells? ›
There are adult stem cells, a kind of undifferentiated cell that can become specialized, that regenerate muscle, but they don't seem to activate. "You can regenerate blood vessels and even nerves," Gardiner said. "But the whole arm can't [regrow]."How can I make my skin younger at 40? ›
- Protect your skin from the sun. Sun protection forms the foundation of every anti-aging skin-care plan. ...
- Forget about indoor tanning. ...
- Apply moisturizer every day. ...
- Wash away dirt and grime twice a day. ...
- Stop smoking. ...
- Eat healthy foods. ...
- Get enough sleep.
These rodents cannot stand this oil's robust and minty smell, so a few drops around your home can go a long way in keeping them away. You can also use a diffuser to spread the peppermint oil around your home or apply it directly to areas where you've seen mice or rats.
The bottom line is the perfumes in this soap tell mice, rats, chipmunks, and other critters to stay clear. Irish Spring comes in different scents and varieties, and I have found that as long as it is Irish Spring in general it will work just fine.What foods age you fast? ›
- White bread.
- White sugar.
- Processed meats.
- Caffeine + sugar.
Rouleau says foods rich in omega-3s "stifle your body's response to irritation and attract water to skin cells to plump up the skin and reduce wrinkles." To reap the benefits of this nutrient, she suggests eating foods such as salmon, flaxseed, tofu, shrimp, halibut, and soybean.Which tea is good for anti-aging? ›
Green tea is a great and healthy anti-aging option. It is slightly more oxidized than white tea for example and ranges from mellow and floral all the way to vegetal. High in antioxidants, minerals and vitamins, green tea is amazing for reducing UV damage to the skin.How do you slow down aging mice? ›
Rapamycin has been shown to extend lifespan of both male and female mice, when started at 9 or at 20 months of age. At the highest doses of rapamycin tested so far, male mice live 23% longer, and female mice life 26% longer than ordinary control mice.
Can scientists reverse the aging process? ›
In the last few years, scientists have shown that it's actually possible to partially reverse aging: they succeeded in making old organisms younger. There are many ways to do this, via cutting-edge biotechnologies, and – to a lesser extent – via specific lifestyle interventions.Can we stop the aging process? ›
There is little science can currently do to stop or slow aging. Death is relative to biological constraints. Billions of dollars go into studying and propagating “eternal youth.”How quickly do mice age? ›
For the mature adult group, mice should be at least three months old because, although they are sexually mature by 35 days, relatively rapid maturational growth continues for most biological processes and structures until about three months. The upper age range for the mature adult group is typically about six months.What protein stops aging? ›
In a recent study, our team identified a novel anti-ageing protein, called Gaf1. We found that Gaf1 controls protein metabolism, a process that has been implicated in ageing and disease. We also found that without Gaf1, cells have a shorter lifespan.How long do mice normally live? ›
While many factors can affect their longevity, mice usually live for about 12 to 18 months. The presence of food, shelter, and predators determines how long mice live.What slows down aging? ›
From getting enough physical activity to limiting alcohol and stress, these habits reduce the risk of chronic disease and slow the aging process – helping you look and feel your best for years to come.What makes a woman look younger naturally? ›
Drinking enough water each day replenishes your skin's tissue and cells, allowing for younger and healthier looking skin. Another key to maintaining a youthful appearance is to simply get some rest! When you sleep, your body continuously releases hormones that promote cell turnover and renewal.Why am I aging so fast all of a sudden? ›
This is called extrinsic aging. As a result, premature aging can set in long before it was expected. In other words, your biological clock is more advanced than your chronological clock. Controllable factors such as stress, smoking and sun exposure can all play a role in expediting extrinsic aging.How can I look 20 years younger naturally? ›
- Use a Moisturizer, Then Foundation. e.l.f. ...
- Try a Collagen-Based Face Cream. Elemis. ...
- Use a concealer for dark circles. Estée Lauder. ...
- Keep your eye makeup simple. Urban Decay. ...
- Curl those lashes. ULTA. ...
- Apply SPF Daily. Vichy. ...
- Take your time removing your makeup. Clinique.